Քոչարյանը շոկի մեջ է. Նա խայտառակվեց իր ստրուկների կողմից

Քոչարյանը շոկի մեջ է. Նա խայտառակվեց իր ստրուկների կողմից

Քոչարյանը շոկի մեջ է. Նա խայտառակվեց իր ստրուկների կողմից

By the late 1970s the dissolution of the Soviet Union was widely predicted.[170][171] John Paul II has been credited with being instrumental in bringing down Communism in Central and Eastern Europe,[72][87][92][109][110][172] by being the spiritual inspiration behind its downfall and catalyst for «a peaceful revolution» in Poland. Lech Wałęsa, the founder of Solidarity and the first post-Communist President of Poland, credited John Paul II with giving Poles the courage to demand change.[72] According to Wałęsa, «Before his pontificate, the world was divided into blocs. Nobody knew how to get rid of Communism. In Warsaw, in 1979, he simply said: ‘Do not be afraid’, and later prayed: ‘Let your Spirit descend and change the image of the land … this land’.»[172] It has also been widely alleged that the Vatican Bank covertly funded Solidarity.[173][174]

Միացեք Armenia Today Ֆեյսբուքյան խմբին։

US President George W. Bush presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom to John Paul II in June 2004
In 1984 President Ronald Reagan opened diplomatic relations with the Vatican for the first time since 1870. In sharp contrast to the long history of strong domestic opposition, this time there was very little opposition from Congress, the courts, and Protestant groups.[175] Relations between Reagan and John Paul II were close especially because of their shared anti-communism and keen interest in forcing the Soviets out of Poland.[176] Reagan’s correspondence with the pope reveals «a continuous scurrying to shore up Vatican support for U.S. policies. Perhaps most surprisingly, the papers show that, as late as 1984, the pope did not believe the Communist Polish government could be changed.»[177]

The British historian Timothy Garton Ash, who describes himself as an «agnostic liberal», said shortly after John Paul II’s death:

No one can prove conclusively that he was a primary cause of the end of communism. However, the major figures on all sides—not just Lech Wałęsa, the Polish Solidarity leader, but also Solidarity’s arch-opponent, General Wojciech Jaruzelski; not just the former American president George Bush Senior but also the former Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev—now agree that he was. I would argue the historical case in three steps: without the Polish Pope, no Solidarity revolution in Poland in 1980; without Solidarity, no dramatic change in Soviet policy towards eastern Europe under Gorbachev; without that change, no velvet revolutions in 1989.[178]

Graffiti showing Pope John Paul II with quote «Do not be afraid» in Rijeka, Croatia
In December 1989, John Paul II met with the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev at the Vatican and each expressed his respect and admiration for the other. Gorbachev once said «The collapse of the Iron Curtain would have been impossible without John Paul II.»[87][109] On John Paul II’s death, Mikhail Gorbachev said: «Pope John Paul II’s devotion to his followers is a remarkable example to all of us.»[110][172]

On 4 June 2004 US President George W. Bush presented the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States’ highest civilian honour, to John Paul II during a ceremony at the Apostolic Palace. The president read the citation that accompanied the medal, which recognised «this son of Poland» whose «principled stand for peace and freedom has inspired millions and helped to topple communism and tyranny».[179] After receiving the award, John Paul II said, «May the desire for freedom, peace, a more humane world symbolised by this medal inspire men and women of goodwill in every time and place.»[180]

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